Block 151

February 7, 2011

I never thought seriously that I would one day find myself standing inside the building where my father had once been a prisoner of war.  Singapore was a very long way away from the England of my childhood, both in imagination and geography.  Working on his notes over the past couple of years has brought it much closer in imagination at least.  But I now live in Chicago and in terms of miles that is about as far away as you can get.

My reasons for coming to Singapore were to finally get a sense of the place for myself.  The use of the word sense is deliberate; I wanted to see, hear, touch, smell and taste it.  Of course, the island has been transformed — many times in fact — since my father’s day.  But hints of its wartime past remain.  As it turned out they were sometimes rather more than hints.

I did not realize, even by the time of my arrival, whether any of the old Roberts buildings were still standing.  Had I known more about the Changi murals I would have learned quickly enough that Block 151 had been preserved as that is where they were housed.  But my interest in that building had more to do with the dysentery wing.  This is where my father had been (both as an RAMC orderly and patient) from the establishment of the hospital facility in March 1942 until he was moved to Selerang in the summer of 1943.  His early notes on camp sanitation,  deficiency diseases, drainage systems and ottway pits would have been written here.  He knew Block 151 very well.

It was Jeya, the director of the Changi Museum, who told us that the building did indeed still exist but that as it was on the air force base, a high security area, it was not accessible to the public.  Still, he encouraged us to contact the public affairs office at the Ministry of Defence (MINDEF) as exceptions were sometimes made for families of former POW.  This we did though without any great confidence that there would be a reply let alone permission to visit.

We were wrong.  The staff at MINDEF were more than helpful and bent over backwards to arrange a visit even at such short notice — we were due to return to Chicago a week later.  True, passport numbers and other information had to be provided for security purposes.  A car also had to be hired from a company acceptable to MINDEF as taxis were not allowed.  But these things were quickly sorted out as they tend to be in Singapore and permission was granted within a couple of days or so.

And so at the appointed hour we presented ourselves at the west security gate at Changi Air Force Base.  A military vehicle would escort us the rest of the way.

The building stood on a slight rise with open ground to one side of it and trees on the other.  I was certainly aware of the enormity of the moment as we approached and yet before I knew it we were inside.

What we had been given permission to see was the old chapel containing the Changi murals.  The story of the murals is both remarkable and inspiring (go to http://www.petrowilliamus.co.uk/murals/murals.htm to learn more) but it was not what had drawn me to this place.  I listened as the history of the murals and their rediscovery was explained but what I wanted more than anything else at that moment was to explore the building and the grounds outside and to be alone with my thoughts.  For security reasons that would not be possible.

Still, half way round the world and nearly seventy years later I was standing in the very place I never thought I’d see, a place my father and so many others had been forced to know so well.  That was more than I could have hoped for even days beforehand and I am enormously grateful to Jeya at the Changi Museum and Simon Soh at MINDEF who did so much to make it happen.

Roberts Hospital

November 7, 2009

But back to Changi.

It was only in 1941 that the British military installation on the promontory was completed.  In fifteen years, as H.A. Probert describes it in his History of Changi, “a piece of virgin jungle had been transformed into one of the most modern and best equipped military bases in the world.”  Given the lack of air defense in Singapore, he continues, it was also essentially obsolete.

Roberts Barracks became the hospital for the prison camp.  Formerly housing the Royal Artillery it had to absorb sick and wounded prisoners from across the island, including those from Alexandra Hospital which the Japanese had commandeered.  Given the bombardment it had taken during the invasion it was in no condition to do so.  Water supplies, sewerage systems, buildings and roads had been severely damaged.  This is how my father put it in a note written towards the end of the war.  “To such a camp, with all of its essential services disorganized, the whole of the ‘white’ patients of the Malaya and Singapore garrisons, complete with their medical & associated personnel & multifarious supplies, converged.  It is hardly surprising therefore that for some days chaos reigned, with its accompaniment of hardships, pestilence & death.”

The Australian artist Murray Griffin completed a painting of Roberts Hospital while he was a prisoner at Changi.  Visit the Australian Memorial web site to view the image: http://www.awm.gov.au/exhibitions/sharedexperience/AWMART24491.asp.

My father was posted to Roberts precisely two weeks after the fall of Singapore.  if he had not found the rest of the Royal Army Medical Corps (RAMC) before the invasion, presumably he did now.  I have no idea what his duties were at Roberts; he never talked about them, nor do his notes make any reference to them.  Yet he writes a good deal about the kinds of diseases that always threatened to overwhelm the hospital — well, did overwhelm it — particularly, dysentery, malaria, beri beri, dhobi itch and pallegra.  When he himself became a patient at Roberts on at least two extended occasions, he wrote about that too.

Anti malarial drains

June 13, 2009

 

Latrines, incinerators, Otway pits and anti-malarial drains; besides food and disease, these were the main notebook topics (and presumably preoccupations) during the first few weeks and months at Changi. Such was the prevailing necessity. But the notes also reflected my father’s interest and training. He had developed a passion for natural history as a teenager and had already published a few notes in the The Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine and elsewhere. As far as I can tell, his drawing skills were largely self taught though he had done a number of technical illustrations for the Bulletin of Entomological Research while working at Farnham House Laboratory. He had also qualified as a sanitary inspector before the war and had been trained to do anti-malarial work with the RAMC.  In any case, he returned to the topics again and again in his notes.

In later life, the fascination with drains became almost obsessive. We moved house several times when I was a child and in almost every instance it wasn’t long before my father was excavating a patchwork of ditches in the garden. So deep were these that when digging them he would sometimes disappear completely from view save for the occasional shovel-full of earth tossed into the air.

There weren’t many mosquitoes in our part of Devon but then of course that wasn’t the point. The reasons for the obsessiveness lay elsewhere.

Bidadari camp

May 2, 2009

My father’s first note in Singapore is dated 28th November 1941, at Bidadari camp.  The subject, characteristically enough, was bed bugs; over the next few years he would write much more about them.  There were to be very few dates in his notes, or reflections on his circumstances, especially in the first year or two.   Much more important was the fact that “no mosquitoes were seen.”bidadari-camp

Again, he described the general situation many years later in a letter to a friend.  The precise chronology is unclear to me — and was perhaps no longer to him — for while his first camp was clearly at Bidadari, his references to plying the muddy waters of crocodile infested rivers (also mentioned to me in conversation) could equally apply to time he spent visiting Pengerang on the mainland.  But more of that in another Post.

“At last I made some contact but was merely told to attach myself to any unit I could find for accommodation & food.  In due course they ‘discovered’ me and I was sent to join a small aid post in the middle of a rubber plantation at the edge of the jungle.  From there we operated a river patrol, keeping a check on the health of small groups of men who were in charge of the fixed gun emplacements along the crocodile infested creek.  We used an outboard motorboat the noise from which ought to have attracted any Japs from a considerable area.  They were there but were as look-outs & did not want to give away their positions.  Some were captured but in the thick growth nobody was certain just how many there were in the district.  More than we thought.  We were hurriedly moved out to a safer place.”

service-and-pay-bookThe following is an extract of a letter my father sent to an old friend of his in August 1995 explaining the circumstances of his introduction to army life and the trip to Singapore.

“‘Twas after Dunkirk that they called me up.  Report to the Oxford & Bucks Light Infantry!  I had just walked through the gates &, in fact, hadn’t had time to take my coat off, when I ran into Roger Wilson.  He had been there for a few days and knew all the ropes.  He told me what NAFFI stood for and showed me where it was.  I wasn’t particularly impressed but he assured me that conditions could be worse.  “We are like little pigs in s—t, aren’t we Sarge?” who was passing at the time.  “What’s that?” he replied.  “We are as happy as little pigs in s—t.”  Sarge snorts and mumbles something to the effect that “You ain’t seen nothing yet.”

But Roger was very annoyed.  He wanted to join REME and had already filled in a form applying for a transfer.  I, too, was livid.  I had just qualified as a sanitary inspector and I had heard that they were badly wanted in the RAMC.  Roger showed me where to get the transfer form and the process was put in motion.  Now Roger probably banged on the door of the CO and demanded action pronto.  He was transferred within a fortnight.  I merely gave my form to a Lance Corporal who no doubt handed it to his Sergeant, who passed it on to…..  And so on.  In fact it took ages for that important piece of paper to reach the right quarters.  But from then on things moved quickly.  First to Mytchett, then to the Army School of Hygiene.  Trained for anti-malarial work.  Was given a bike to ride which exempted me from saluting, which was very satisfying; there is something in my nature that resents any form of class distinction.  Life indeed was as good as could reasonably expected.

However, it was not long before they decided to send a group of us abroad.  We arrived at Liverpool in pitch darkness and boarded the ‘Dominion Monarch’ which had almost been completed and was to have been the flagship of the New Zealand line.  It was a beautiful boat and a pity to be requisitioned as a troopship.  But it lacked one important feature: stabilizers had not been fitted.  We formed part of an extremely large convoy, complete with about half a dozen warships.  And it wasn’t long before we were spotted by a German warplane.  At the sight of this all hell was let loose but no bombs were dropped & the convoy dispersed in all directions.  The speed with which this took place was nothing short of amazing.  From then on we were on our own.  Of course, nobody told us where we were going but the sailors had a pretty shrewd idea from the code on our kit bags.  It’s Hong Kong they were sure.  But eventually we turned up in Trinidad!

Then it was back across the Atlantic to refuel at Freetown.  Submarines thereabouts were a problem so the next stage was very much tempered by this threat.  We even went as far south as to encounter icebergs and whales.  Then up again to dock for a few days at Cape Town.  That really was enjoyable; could have spent the rest of the war there.  But this was not to be.  On again, and when in the Indian Ocean we heard that Hong Kong (if that was to have been our destination) had been taken by the Japs.

So there was nothing for it but to be dumped off at Singapore, a decision that seemed to be an acute embarrassment to the Army Command there.  Needless to say, our anti-malarial unit plans came to nothing & we were sent off in all directions, virtually without instructions.  You can imagine it: not acclimatized to the heat & humidity, unfamiliar with the terrain (no maps), unable to speak any of the native languages.  The RAMC certainly existed out there but I never found it.”

Jack Spittle

Jack Spittle

According to his birth certificate my father was born on March 30, 1914 in Ascot though he dismissed the location as an administrative fiction.  In fact, he maintained stoutly, he had been born just down the road in the village of Eton Wick.  Why the distinction was so important to him I never thought to ask but it may have to do with the fact that Ascot was in Berkshire and Eton Wick, in those days at least, was just across the county boundary in Buckinghamshire.  My father was a Buckinghamshire lad through and through.

As a teenager he developed a strong interest in natural history embarking on a project that was to occupy (not to say preoccupy) him until well into his eighties; a census of herons nesting at Oaken Grove, a small wood near the Thames between Henley and Marlow.  After leaving school he went to work  at the Farnham House Laboratory of the Imperial Institute of Entomology at Farnham Royal near Slough.  Though only a lab assistant he worked closely with some of the leading entomologists of the day and illustrated a number of the Institute’s publications.  He was probably at his happiest working (and learning) at Farnham House but the job did not pay well and in 1938 he qualified as a sanitary inspector and quickly got a position working for Slough Council.

He was called up in 1940 and initially joined the Oxford and Bucks Light Infantry.  This wasn’t what he had in mind at all, however, and he was eventually transferred to the RAMC.   Trained for anti-malarial work, he was sent to Singapore in November 1941 and after a chaotic first few weeks posted to Palau Tekong island in the Jahore Straits as sanitary assistant.  It was from here that he got a “grandstand view” of the invasion of Singapore.  He was a prisoner first at Changi (where he worked at Roberts Hospital) and then at Krangi, for the remainder of the war.

Returning to England he settled again in Slough marrying my mother, Jean, in 1947.  He had been reappointed as sanitary inspector but within three or four years became deputy river pollution prevention officer for the Severn River Authority, another position that allowed him to pursue his entomological interests.  In 1950 he published an article on the ‘Nesting Habits of Singapore Birds’ in the Bulletin of the Raffles Museum, based on his observations and hundreds of pages of notes while at Changi and Krangi. In 1961 he was appointed to a more senior position at the Devon River Authority where he remained for the rest of his career.

After retirement he got down to serious work.  This involved the completion of a thirty or so year study of insect life in Devon streams,  now housed at Plymouth Museum,  and the writing up of his Oaken Grove project which by this time had mushroomed from a heron census to a full-blown ecological study of the wood.  He was still making the three or four hour drive from Devon to Oaken Grove into his eighties; except for the war years he had visited the heronry at least annually since 1928.

While he rarely talked about his experience as a prisoner of war, he finally started to sketch out some notes about it a year or two before he died.  Clearly, he was planning to write up his memories and reflections in some way and had come up with a working title: Changi Years Recollections: An Education in Frugal Living. He died in 2004.