That my father devoted nineteen pages to the treatment of dysentery within a couple of weeks of arriving at Changi gives some indication of the incidence of the disease and the challenge facing the improvised hospital.  The pages illustrated below indicates the treatment for “very weak” patients as including colonic lavage, Kaolin, glucose saline, Virol and arrowroot or custard along with Bovril which was obviously still available.
Still, providing treatment in such conditions was only part of the challenge.  Flies were a ubiquious problem, for example, and patients were expected to do their part in eradicating or at least reducing them.

The general practice at Roberts during these early weeks and months included the following:

Precautions against the spread of the disease may be summarized by (1) the elimination of flies (2) personal hygiene.  In more detail these precautions include:

(1) The killing of all flies in the ward and sanitary annex.  This is done chiefly by swatting: many of the patients can help in this respect.  Fly papers, both hanging & placed on the ground, are also used but these are more of a nuisance than anything else.  Swatting should be carried out all day on & around the beds. The fly papers are more or less permanent & when full are replaced by new ones.

(2) The protection of all food from flies. All feeding jars, mugs, cups and utensils are covered after use with squares of gauze.  Bulk foods are stored in fly-proof cupboards, preferably with well ventilated gauze front & for sides.

(3) The protection of all excreta from flies.  All bedpans & urine jars, vomit bowls, spittoons etc. must be emptied immediately after use & rinsed out with cresol solution.

Book A, 56-57

Roberts Hospital

November 7, 2009

But back to Changi.

It was only in 1941 that the British military installation on the promontory was completed.  In fifteen years, as H.A. Probert describes it in his History of Changi, “a piece of virgin jungle had been transformed into one of the most modern and best equipped military bases in the world.”  Given the lack of air defense in Singapore, he continues, it was also essentially obsolete.

Roberts Barracks became the hospital for the prison camp.  Formerly housing the Royal Artillery it had to absorb sick and wounded prisoners from across the island, including those from Alexandra Hospital which the Japanese had commandeered.  Given the bombardment it had taken during the invasion it was in no condition to do so.  Water supplies, sewerage systems, buildings and roads had been severely damaged.  This is how my father put it in a note written towards the end of the war.  “To such a camp, with all of its essential services disorganized, the whole of the ‘white’ patients of the Malaya and Singapore garrisons, complete with their medical & associated personnel & multifarious supplies, converged.  It is hardly surprising therefore that for some days chaos reigned, with its accompaniment of hardships, pestilence & death.”

The Australian artist Murray Griffin completed a painting of Roberts Hospital while he was a prisoner at Changi.  Visit the Australian Memorial web site to view the image: http://www.awm.gov.au/exhibitions/sharedexperience/AWMART24491.asp.

My father was posted to Roberts precisely two weeks after the fall of Singapore.  if he had not found the rest of the Royal Army Medical Corps (RAMC) before the invasion, presumably he did now.  I have no idea what his duties were at Roberts; he never talked about them, nor do his notes make any reference to them.  Yet he writes a good deal about the kinds of diseases that always threatened to overwhelm the hospital — well, did overwhelm it — particularly, dysentery, malaria, beri beri, dhobi itch and pallegra.  When he himself became a patient at Roberts on at least two extended occasions, he wrote about that too.